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# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
%YAML 1.2
title: Generic pin multiplexing node schema
- Linus Walleij <>
description: |
The contents of the pin configuration child nodes are defined by the binding
for the individual pin controller device. The pin configuration nodes need not
be direct children of the pin controller device; they may be grandchildren,
for example. Whether this is legal, and whether there is any interaction
between the child and intermediate parent nodes, is again defined entirely by
the binding for the individual pin controller device.
While not required to be used, there are 3 generic forms of pin muxing nodes
which pin controller devices can use.
pin multiplexing nodes:
state_0_node_a {
uart0 {
function = "uart0";
groups = "u0rxtx", "u0rtscts";
state_1_node_a {
spi0 {
function = "spi0";
groups = "spi0pins";
state_2_node_a {
function = "i2c0";
pins = "mfio29", "mfio30";
Optionally an alternative binding can be used if more suitable depending on the
pin controller hardware. For hardware where there is a large number of identical
pin controller instances, naming each pin and function can easily become
unmaintainable. This is especially the case if the same controller is used for
different pins and functions depending on the SoC revision and packaging.
For cases like this, the pin controller driver may use pinctrl-pin-array helper
binding with a hardware based index and a number of pin configuration values:
pincontroller {
... /* Standard DT properties for the device itself elided */
#pinctrl-cells = <2>;
state_0_node_a {
pinctrl-pin-array = <
Above #pinctrl-cells specifies the number of value cells in addition to the
index of the registers. This is similar to the interrupts-extended binding with
one exception. There is no need to specify the phandle for each entry as that
is already known as the defined pins are always children of the pin controller
node. Further having the phandle pointing to another pin controller would not
currently work as the pinctrl framework uses named modes to group pins for each
pin control device.
The index for pinctrl-pin-array must relate to the hardware for the pinctrl
registers, and must not be a virtual index of pin instances. The reason for
this is to avoid mapping of the index in the dts files and the pin controller
driver as it can change.
For hardware where pin multiplexing configurations have to be specified for
each single pin the number of required sub-nodes containing "pin" and
"function" properties can quickly escalate and become hard to write and
For cases like this, the pin controller driver may use the pinmux helper
property, where the pin identifier is provided with mux configuration settings
in a pinmux group. A pinmux group consists of the pin identifier and mux
settings represented as a single integer or an array of integers.
The pinmux property accepts an array of pinmux groups, each of them describing
a single pin multiplexing configuration.
pincontroller {
state_0_node_a {
pinmux = <PINMUX_GROUP>, <PINMUX_GROUP>, ...;
Each individual pin controller driver bindings documentation shall specify
how pin IDs and pin multiplexing configuration are defined and assembled
together in a pinmux group.
$ref: /schemas/types.yaml#/definitions/string
description: The mux function to select
- $ref: /schemas/types.yaml#/definitions/uint32-array
- $ref: /schemas/types.yaml#/definitions/string-array
The list of pin identifiers that properties in the node apply to. The
specific binding for the hardware defines whether the entries are integers
or strings, and their meaning.
$ref: /schemas/types.yaml#/definitions/string-array
the group to apply the properties to, if the driver supports
configuration of whole groups rather than individual pins (either
this, "pins" or "pinmux" has to be specified)
The list of numeric pin ids and their mux settings that properties in the
node apply to (either this, "pins" or "groups" have to be specified)
$ref: /schemas/types.yaml#/definitions/uint32-array
$ref: /schemas/types.yaml#/definitions/uint32-array
additionalProperties: true